THE PALOS SITE THE CADOTTE SITE The time of written history in the Illinois Country began suddenly with the arrival of Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet in the summer of 1673. In the spring of 1675, Marquette returned to establish the Mission of the Immaculate Conception – the first European edifice in the Illinois Country.

Archaeologists also recognize a protohistory of the region: a time of indirect contact between aboriginal societies and European culture. The protohistoric is signaled not only in the presence of new metal tools and glass ornaments obtained through “down-the-line trade” but also by the spread of new diseases, the instigation of warfare and new alliances, and the dramatic reorganization of territories and homelands. Of course, the era of protohistory occurred at different times in different regions of North America, but in Illinois these changes occurred between ca. 1580 and 1670. HOME PROTOHISTORIC STUDIES